Mindfulness is defined as the consciousness that emerges through paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and without being critical, to the development of the moment-by-moment experience (Kabat-Zinn, 2003, cited in Boettcher et al., 2014). However, it is more than a type of meditation, since it is considered a state of consciousness by nature (Shapiro, Carlson, Astin & Freedman, 2006) that involves consciously paying attention to the personal experience of “moment by moment”.
Through the use of meditation practices (both formal and informal), in combination with components of other therapies such as the cognitive behavioral intervention with mindfulness aims to help patients become more aware of problematic patterns of thinking, feelings, and action. In addition, it helps them develop a better acceptance relationship with their unwanted internal experiences (Morgan, Danitz, Roemer and Orsillo, 2016).
The concept of Mindfulness is essentially transdiagnostic (Boettcher et al., 2014), therefore, its use in the field of psychological therapy is justified from a broad theoretical framework in which it is considered that individuals with mental disorders share behavioral processes and specific cognitive factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of said disorders (Barlow et al., 2004 and Mansell et al., 2009, cited in Boettcher et al., 2014). These are processes such as selective attention both internal and external, avoidance of attention, interpretation biases, recurrent negative thoughts and avoidance and safety behaviors (Harvey, Watkins, Mansell, & Shafran, 2004, cited in Boettcher et al., 2014). Therefore, through the practice of Mindfulness it is not intended to treat specific aspects of a specific disorder, but to treat certain aspects common to different disorders.